Compensatory mechanism of adaptive responses to interval hypoxia

Cardiovascular system

  • Improves the microcirculation [Belyavskiy et al., Bobyleva et al., Ischuk et al.,Townsend et al.]
  • Reduces endothelial dysfunction Chiu et al. , Elchaninova et al., Haider et al., Manukhina et al.]
  • Increases myocardium and brain resistance to acute ischaemia (precondition-like effect) [Bulgaket al., Zhua et al.]
  • Reduction in the negative consequences of systemic oxidative stress Arkhipenko et al., Borukaeva et al., Elchaninova et al.]

Respiratory system

  • Increases the lung diffusion capacity for CO2 and O2 [Vogtel et al.]
  • Increases the ventilatory response [Hetzler et al., Katayama et al.]
  • Improves the respiratory function [Ainslie et al. , Bobyeva et al., Borukaeva et al., Katayama et al.]
  • Improves bronchial performance [Ainslie et al. , Borukaeva et al.]
  • Increases baroreflex sensitivity [Haider et al.]

Cellular and metabolic

  • HIF-1-alpha, HIF-3-alpha, VEGF, EPO, NOS expression [Ferrara et al., Semenza ]
  • Induction of defence protein synthesis (HSP, Fe-RP, repair enzymes) [Arkhipenko et al.]
  • Increases glycolic enzymes [Fenkci et al.]
  • Improves insulin sensitivity [Lusina et al. , Mackenzie et al. ]
  • Increases glucose transporter GLUT-4 [Chiu et al. , Townsend et al.]
  • Lowers cholesterol levels [Glazachev et al., Lyapkov et al., Sokolov et al.]
  • Anti-inflammatory effect [Anderson et al., Serebrovskaya et al.]

HIF-1